Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. It is transmissible to humans through handling or consumption of contaminated animal products. Infection in humans most frequently occurs on the skin, in the gastrointestinal tract and in the lungs. Like most Bacillus bacterium, B. anthracis is spore-forming which can survive in extremely harsh environments for decades, and even centuries.
Canine Distemper Virus is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects dogs. The virus is not a risk to either human health (does not present any symptoms) or food safety.
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a type A influenza virus, primarily affecting dogs. CIV is considered an emerging pathogen. No human infections have been reported.
Canine Parvovirus (CPV) or “Parvo” as it is commonly known usually attacks the canine intestinal track. It is highly infectious and can affect all dogs, but particularly unvaccinated dogs and puppies or young adults. While worrisome to a dog owner, Parvo cannot be transmitted for an infected dog to humans.
Ebola is spread through direct contact with blood, bodily fluid, organs and secretions via broken skin or mucous membrane with an infected person. Ebolavirus is part of the Filoviridae family of viruses. Four out of the five known ebolaviruses cause disease in humans. The Zaire ebolavirus is the most severe as it has the highest mortality rate and is responsible for the most outbreaks and fatalities.
Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), is an economically important disease for the horse industry, causing abortion (sporadic or storms), neonatal death, respiratory disease in young horses and myeloencephalopathy (a neurologic manifestation of the disease - paralysis). Outbreaks of this virus have a negative impact on the equine industry worldwide due to interference with movement of horses across borders and cancelled competitions.
Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses, donkeys and mules and other equidae. EIV is a commonly diagnosed respiratory virus in horses with significant financial and trade implication for the industry.
Feline Calicivirus (FCV) is a viral disease that affects cats and is commonly recognized by the oral ulcers it causes. It is a common agent in infectious feline upper respiratory tract disease.
Feline Herpesvirus (FHV), also known as Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, is a viral disease that causes acute upper respiratory infections (URIs) primarily in cats in their first year of life.
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a complex and inevitably fatal disease caused by the Feline Coronavirus (FCoV).
Feline Panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a virus transmitted through the fecal-oral route and causes vomiting, diarrhea, and sometimes sudden death in cats.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting wild and domestic cloven-hoofed mammals. Of the domesticated species, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and water buffalo are susceptible to FMD. Horse is refractory to the infection. FMD is not considered a human health or food safety risk.
Hantavirus is spread through contact with mice saliva, droppings, feces, urine and nesting material. It causes a rare but very serious lung disease called Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) among other diseases.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections.
Microsporum canis is a fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PEDv) is a production-limiting disease affecting swine, and does not impact food safety or human health.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a production-limiting disease affecting swine, and does not impact food safety or human health.
Pseudorabies is a viral disease affecting swine primarily; the virus is not a risk to either human health or food safety.
Pigs are the principal hosts of classic swine influenza virus (SIV). While human infections have been reported, porcine strains of influenza A do not appear to easily spread in the human population. However, deaths have occurred in immunocompromised people.
The Transmissible Gastroenteritis virus (TGEv) causes acute, rapidly spreading disease in swine characterized by diarrhea and vomiting. TGEv is not considered a human health or food safety risk.
Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a species of fungus that is a communicable pathogen; it affects both animals and humans alike. Trichophyton mentagrohphytes are found in a variety of environments, and infections can take several forms. Trichophyton is known as a dermatophyte; part of a group of three genera of fungi that cause skin disease in people and animals.
Although not especially virulent, Enterococci have become the second most common nosocomial pathogen and are the third leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to many common antibiotics. Given the intrinsic resistance to most antibiotics, the addition of vancomycin resistance has meant that many infections have become untreatable.